Form: 10-K

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

February 22, 2021

10-K: Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Published on February 22, 2021

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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

OMEGA HEALTHCARE INVESTORS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Maryland

1-11316

38-3041398

(Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc.)

(Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc.)

(Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc.)

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(Commission file number)

(IRS Employer Identification No.)

303 International Circle, Suite 200, Hunt Valley, MD 21030

(Address of principal executive offices)

(410) 427-1700

(Telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Registrant

    

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol (s)

Name of Exchange on
Which Registered

 

Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc.

Common Stock, $.10 Par Value

OHI

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one:)

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Yes No

The aggregate market value of the common stock Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc. held by non-affiliates was $6,747,008,166 as of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. The aggregate market value was computed using the $29.73 closing price per share for such stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date.

As of February 12, 2021, there were 231,776,284 shares of Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc. common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Proxy Statement for the registrant’s 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after December 31, 2020, is incorporated by reference in Part III herein.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

2

Overview; Recent Events

2

Summary of Financial Information by Asset Category

3

Description of the Business

4

Taxation of Omega

5

Government Regulation and Reimbursement

6

Information about our Executive Officers

13

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

14

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

27

Item 2.

Properties

28

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

29

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

29

PART II

Item 5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

29

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

30

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

30

Forward-Looking Statements and Factors Affecting Future Results

30

Overview and Outlook

31

2020 and Recent Highlights

33

Portfolio and Other Developments

33

Asset Sales, Impairments, Contractual Receivables and Lease Inducements

34

Results of Operations

38

Liquidity and Capital Resources

40

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

45

Item7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

46

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

47

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

47

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

47

Item 9B.

Other Information

48

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers of the Registrant and Corporate Governance

49

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

49

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

49

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

50

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

50

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

51

Item 16.

Summary

51

1

Item 1 – Business

Overview; Recent Events

Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc. (“Omega”) was incorporated in the state of Maryland on March 31, 1992, and has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal income tax purposes. Omega is structured as an umbrella partnership REIT (“UPREIT”) under which all of Omega's assets are owned directly or indirectly by, and all of Omega's operations are conducted directly or indirectly through, its operating partnership subsidiary, OHI Healthcare Properties Limited Partnership, a Delaware limited partnership (“Omega OP”). Unless stated otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the terms “Omega”, the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Omega OP, references to Parent refer to Omega Healthcare Investors, Inc. without regard to its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “Omega OP” mean OHI Healthcare Properties Limited Partnership and its consolidated subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2020, Parent owned approximately 97% of the issued and outstanding units of partnership interest in Omega OP (“Omega OP Units”), and other investors owned approximately 3% of the outstanding Omega OP Units.

Omega has one reportable segment consisting of investments in healthcare-related real estate properties located in the United States (“U.S.”) and the United Kingdom (“U.K.”). Our core business is to provide financing and capital to the long-term healthcare industry with a particular focus on skilled nursing facilities (“SNFs”), assisted living facilities (“ALFs”), and to a lesser extent, independent living facilities (“ILFs”), rehabilitation and acute care facilities (“specialty facilities”) and medical office buildings (“MOBs”). Our core portfolio consists of long-term leases and mortgage agreements. All of our leases to our operators are “triple-net” leases, which require the operators (we use the term “operator” to refer to our tenants and mortgagors and their affiliates who manage and/or operate our properties) to pay all property-related expenses. Our mortgage revenue derives from fixed rate mortgage loans, which are secured by first mortgage liens on the underlying real estate and personal property of the mortgagor. Our other investment income derives from fixed and variable rate loans to our operators to fund working capital and capital expenditures. These loans, which may be either unsecured or secured by the collateral of the borrower, are classified as other investments.      

On January 20, 2021, we acquired 24 senior living facilities from Healthpeak Properties, Inc. for $510 million. The acquisition involved the assumption of an in-place master lease with Brookdale Senior Living. The master lease provides for 2021 contractual rent of approximately $43.5 million, and includes 24 facilities representing 2,552 operating units located in Arizona (1), California (1), Florida (1), Illinois (1), New Jersey (1), Oregon (6), Pennsylvania (1), Tennessee (1), Texas (6), Virginia (1), and Washington (4).

In February 2021, we sold 16 facilities for approximately $149.6 million in cash proceeds and recorded a gain on sale of approximately $94.4 million.  These 16 facilities were held for sale as of December 31, 2020 with a carrying value of approximately $49.3 million.

In 2020, we completed the following transactions totaling approximately $258 million in new investments:

Acquisition of eight SNFs and three ALFs for approximately $104 million from unrelated third parties.  The facilities are located in the U.K., Indiana, Ohio and Virginia, and were added to the existing operators’ master leases with initial cash yields between 8.0% and 9.5%.
$43 million of investments in two SNF mortgages.  
$111 million of investments in capital expenditure and construction projects.

As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio of investments included 967 healthcare facilities located in 40 states and the U.K. and operated by 69 third-party operators and was made up of the following:

738 SNFs, 115 ALFs, 28 specialty facilities and two MOBs;
fixed rate mortgages on 56 SNFs, three ALFs and three specialty facilities; and
22 facilities held for sale.

As of December 31, 2020, our investments in these facilities, net of impairments and allowances, totaled approximately $9.7 billion. In addition, we held other investments of approximately $467.4 million, consisting primarily of secured loans to third-party operators of our facilities and $200.6 million of investment in five unconsolidated joint ventures.

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For the year ended December 31, 2020, we have collected substantially all of the contractual rents owed to us from our operators.  However, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on our operators.  Many of our operators have reported incurring significant cost increases and declines in occupancy as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. While government relief measures at the federal and state levels, including expanded Medicaid reimbursements, have offered meaningful support to offset a portion of these cost increases and impacts to our SNF operators, and to a lesser extent our ALF operators, we cannot at this time estimate the net impact going forward to these operators, and we cannot estimate the extent to which operators will receive additional governmental relief. For further discussion of the impact of COVID-19, See Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Overview and Outlook.

While we continue to believe that longer term demographics will drive increasing demand for needs-based skilled nursing care, we expect the uncertainties to our business described above to persist at least for the near term until we can gain more visibility into the costs our operators will experience and for how long, and the level of additional governmental support that will be available to them, the potential support our operators may request from us and the future demand for needs-based skilled nursing care and senior living facilities. We continue to monitor the impact of occupancy declines at many of our operators, and it remains uncertain whether and when demand and occupancy levels will return to pre-COVID-19 levels.

Summary of Financial Information by Asset Category

The following table summarizes our revenues by asset category for 2020, 2019 and 2018. (See Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Note 3 – Properties, Note 4 – Direct Financing Leases, Note 5 – Mortgage Notes Receivable and Note 6 – Other Investments).

Revenues by Asset Category

(in thousands)

Year Ended December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

Real estate related income:

Rental income

$

753,427

$

804,076

$

767,340

Income from direct financing leases

 

1,033

 

1,036

 

1,636

Mortgage interest income

 

89,422

 

76,542

 

70,312

Total real estate related revenues

 

843,882

 

881,654

 

839,288

Other investment income

 

44,864

 

43,400

 

40,228

Miscellaneous income

 

3,635

 

3,776

 

2,166

Total operating revenues

$

892,381

$

928,830

$

881,682

The following table summarizes our real estate assets by asset category as of December 31, 2020 and 2019:

Assets by Category

(in thousands)

As of December 31, 

    

2020

    

2019

Real estate assets:

Buildings

$

6,961,509

$

7,056,106

Land

 

883,765

 

901,246

Furniture, fixtures and equipment

 

518,664

 

515,421

Site improvements

 

308,087

 

287,655

Construction in progress

 

30,129

 

225,566

Total real estate assets

 

8,702,154

 

8,985,994

Investments in direct financing leases - net

 

10,764

 

11,488

Mortgage notes receivable - net

 

885,313

 

773,563

Assets held for sale

 

81,452

 

4,922

Total real estate related assets

 

9,679,683

 

9,775,967

Other investments - net

 

467,442

 

419,228

Investments in unconsolidated joint ventures

 

200,638

 

199,884

Total investments

$

10,347,763

$

10,395,079

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Description of the Business

Investment Strategy. We maintain a portfolio of long-term healthcare facilities and mortgages on healthcare facilities located in the U.S. and the U.K. Our investments are generally geographically diverse and operated by a diverse group of established, middle-market healthcare operators that we believe meet our standards for quality and experience of management and creditworthiness. Our criteria for evaluating potential investments includes but is not limited to:

the quality and experience of management and the creditworthiness of the operator of the facility;

the facility’s historical and forecasted cash flow and its ability to meet operational needs, capital expenditure requirements and lease or debt service obligations;

the construction quality, condition and design of the facility;

the location of the facility;

the tax, growth, regulatory and reimbursement environment of the applicable jurisdiction;

the occupancy rate for the facility and demand for similar healthcare facilities in the same or nearby communities; and

the payor mix of private, Medicare and Medicaid patients at the facility.

As healthcare delivery continues to evolve, we continuously evaluate potential investments, as well as our assets, operators and markets to position our portfolio for long-term success. Our strategy includes applying data analytics to our investment underwriting and asset management, as well as selling or transitioning assets that do not meet our portfolio criteria.

We prefer to invest in equity ownership of properties. Due to regulatory, tax or other considerations, we may pursue alternative investment structures, such as mortgages and investments in joint ventures. The following summarizes our primary investment structures. The average annualized yields described below reflect obligations under existing contractual arrangements. However, due to the nature of the long-term care industry, we cannot assure that the operators of our facilities will meet their payment obligations in full or when due. Therefore, the annualized yields as of December 31, 2020, set forth below, are not necessarily indicative of future yields, which may be lower.

We seek to obtain (i) contractual rent escalations under long-term, non-cancelable, “triple-net” leases and (ii) fixed-rate mortgage loans. We also typically seek to obtain substantial liquidity deposits, covenants regarding minimum working capital and net worth, liens on accounts receivable and other operating assets, and various provisions for cross-default, cross-collateralization and corporate and/or personal guarantees, when appropriate.

Triple-Net Operating Leases. Triple-net operating leases typically range from 5 to 15 years, plus renewal options. Our leases generally provide for minimum annual rents that are subject to annual escalators. At December 31, 2020, our average annualized yield from operating leases was approximately 9.7%. At December 31, 2020, approximately 93% of our operating leases have initial lease terms expiring after 2025. The majority of our leased real estate properties are leased under provisions of master lease agreements that govern more than one facility and to a lesser extent we lease facilities under single facility leases.

Fixed-Rate Mortgages. Our mortgages typically have a fixed interest rate for the mortgage term and are secured by first mortgage liens on the underlying real estate and personal property of the mortgagor. At December 31, 2020, our average annualized yield on these investments was approximately 10.4%. At December 31, 2020, approximately 84% of our mortgages have primary terms that expire after 2025.

The table set forth in Item 2 – Properties contains information regarding our properties and investments as of December 31, 2020.

Borrowing Policies. We generally attempt to match the maturity of our indebtedness with the maturity of our investment assets and employ long-term, fixed-rate debt to the extent practicable in view of market conditions in existence from time to time.

We may use the proceeds of new indebtedness to finance our investments in additional healthcare facilities. In addition, we may invest in properties subject to existing loans, secured by mortgages, deeds of trust or similar liens on properties.

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Policies With Respect To Certain Activities. With respect to our capital requirements, we typically rely on equity offerings, debt financing and retention of cash flow (subject to provisions in the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) concerning taxability of undistributed REIT taxable income), or a combination of these methods. Our financing alternatives include bank borrowings, publicly or privately placed debt instruments, purchase money obligations to the sellers of assets or securitizations, any of which may be issued as secured or unsecured indebtedness. We have the authority to issue our common stock or other equity or debt securities in exchange for property and to repurchase or otherwise reacquire our securities. Subject to the percentage of ownership limitations and gross income and asset tests necessary for REIT qualification, we may invest in securities of other REITs, other entities engaged in real estate activities or securities of other issuers, including for the purpose of exercising control over such entities. We may engage in the purchase and sale of investments. We do not underwrite the securities of other issuers. Our officers and directors may change any of these policies without a vote of our stockholders. In the opinion of our management, our properties are adequately covered by insurance.

Competition. The healthcare industry is highly competitive and will likely become more competitive in the future. We face competition in making and pricing new investments from other public and private REITs, investment companies, private equity and hedge fund investors, healthcare operators, lenders, developers and other institutional investors, some of whom have greater resources and lower costs of capital than us.  We believe our use of data analytics to underwrite investments and manage our portfolio may provide us a competitive advantage. In addition, a significant amount of our rental and mortgage income is generally derived from facilities in states that require state approval for development and expansion of healthcare facilities. We believe that such state approvals may reduce competition for our operators and enhance the value of our properties. Our operators compete on a local and regional basis with operators of facilities that provide comparable services. The basis of competition for our operators includes, amongst other factors, the quality of care provided, reputation, the physical appearance of a facility, price, the range of services offered, family preference, alternatives for healthcare delivery, the supply of competing properties, physicians, staff, referral sources, location and the size and demographics of the population and surrounding areas.

Increased competition makes it more challenging for us to identify and successfully capitalize on opportunities that meet our objectives. Our ability to compete is also impacted by national and local economic trends, availability of investment alternatives, availability and cost of capital, construction and renovation costs, existing laws and regulations, new legislation and population trends.

Taxation of Omega

Omega elected to be taxed as a REIT, under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code, beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 1992. To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must continue to meet certain tests that, among other things, generally require that our assets consist primarily of real estate assets, our income be derived primarily from real estate assets, and that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (other than net capital gains) to our stockholders annually. Provided we maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes at the corporate level on our net income to the extent such net income is distributed to our stockholders annually. Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT, we will continue to be subject to certain federal, state and local taxes on our income and property. We believe that we were organized and have operated in such a manner as to qualify for taxation as a REIT. We intend to continue to operate in a manner that will allow us to maintain our qualification as a REIT, but no assurance can be given that we have operated or will be able to continue to operate in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT.

We have utilized, and may continue to utilize, one or more taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) to engage in activities that REITs may be prohibited from performing, including the provision of management and other services to third parties and the conduct of certain nonqualifying real estate transactions. Our TRSs generally are taxable as regular corporations, and therefore, subject to federal, state and local income taxes.

To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain or do distribute at least 90%, but less than 100% of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax thereon at regular ordinary and capital gain corporate tax rates. If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, as a result of a determination that we failed to meet the annual distribution requirement or otherwise, we would be subject to federal income tax, and any applicable alternative minimum tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates with respect to each such taxable year for which the statute of limitations remains open. In addition, we could become subject to certain punitive excise taxes on nonqualified REIT income.  Moreover, unless entitled to relief under certain statutory provisions, we also would be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost. This treatment would significantly reduce our net earnings and cash flow because of our additional tax liability for the years involved, which could significantly impact our financial condition.

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All of our investments are held directly or through entities owned by Omega OP. Omega OP is a pass through entity for United States federal income tax purposes, and therefore we are required to take into account our allocable share of each item of Omega OP’s income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit for any taxable year of Omega OP ending within or with our taxable year, without regard to whether we have received or will receive any distribution from Omega OP. Although a partnership agreement for pass through entities generally will determine the allocation of income and losses among partners, such allocations will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of the Code and Treasury Regulations governing partnership allocations. If an allocation is not recognized for federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership, which will be determined by considering all the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. While Omega OP should generally not be a taxable entity for federal income tax purposes, any state or local revenue, excise or franchise taxes that result from the operating activities of the Omega OP may be incurred at the entity level.

Investors are strongly urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the potential tax consequences of an investment in us based on such investor’s particular circumstances.

Government Regulation and Reimbursement

The healthcare industry is heavily regulated. Our operators, which are primarily based in the U.S., are subject to extensive and complex federal, state and local healthcare laws and regulations; we also have several U.K.-based operators that are impacted by a variety of laws and regulations in their jurisdiction. These laws and regulations are subject to frequent and substantial changes resulting from the adoption of new legislation, rules and regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations of existing law. The ultimate timing or effect of these changes, which may be applied retroactively, cannot be predicted. Changes in laws and regulations impacting our operators, in addition to regulatory non-compliance by our operators, can have a significant effect on the operations and financial condition of our operators, which in turn may adversely impact us. There is the potential that we may be subject directly to healthcare laws and regulations because of the broad nature of some of these regulations, such as the Anti-kickback Statute and False Claims Act, among others.

Additionally, emergency legislation, including the CARES Act enacted on March 27, 2020 and discussed below, and temporary changes to regulations and reimbursement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, continue to have a significant impact on the operations and financial condition of our operators. The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on the Company’s and our operators’ operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the sufficiency and timeliness of additional governmental relief, the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak, the impact of new vaccine distributions on our operators and their populations, as well as the difference in how the pandemic may impact SNFs in contrast to ALFs, all of which developments and impacts are uncertain and difficult to predict. Due to these uncertainties, we are not able at this time to estimate the effect of these factors on our business; however, the adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.  

A significant portion of our operators’ revenue is derived from government-funded reimbursement programs, consisting primarily of Medicare and Medicaid; the balance represents reimbursement payments from alternative payors. As federal and state governments continue to focus on healthcare reform initiatives, efforts to reduce costs by government payors will likely continue, which may result in reductions in reimbursement at both the federal and state levels. Additionally, new and evolving payor and provider programs, including but not limited to Medicare Advantage, dual eligible, value-based purchasing, payments to providers that are tied to quality and efficiency such as the Patient Driven Payment Model, and bundled payments, could adversely impact our tenants’ and operators’ liquidity, financial condition or results of operations, and there can be no assurance that payments under any of these government health care programs are currently, or will be in the future, sufficient to fully reimburse the property operators for their operating and capital expenses. Significant limits on the scope of services reimbursed and/or reductions of reimbursement rates could therefore have a material adverse effect on our operators’ results of operations and financial condition, which could adversely affect our operators’ ability to meet their obligations to us.  

In addition to quality or value based reimbursement reforms, the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) has implemented a number of initiatives focused on the reporting of certain facility specific quality of care indicators that could affect our operators, including publicly released quality ratings for all of the nursing homes that participate in Medicare or Medicaid under the CMS “Five Star Quality Rating System.” Facility rankings, ranging from five stars (“much above average”) to one star (“much below average”) are updated on a monthly basis. SNFs are required to provide information for the CMS Nursing Home Compare website regarding staffing and quality measures. These rating changes have impacted referrals to SNFs, and it is possible that changes to this system or other ranking systems could lead to future reimbursement policies that reward or penalize facilities on the basis of the reported quality of care parameters.  

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The following is a discussion of certain U.S. laws and regulations generally applicable to our operators, and in certain cases, to us.

Reimbursement Changes Related to COVID-19:

CARES Act and Provider Funds Appropriating $178 Billion.  In response to the pandemic, on March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was signed into law in the U.S. The CARES Act allocates $100 billion to a Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund to “reimburse, through grants or other mechanisms, eligible health care providers for health care related expenses or lost revenues that are attributable to coronavirus.” Certain healthcare operators may be eligible to receive compensation for lost revenue or costs incurred in the course of providing medical services, such as those related to obtaining personal protective equipment (“PPE”), COVID-19 related testing supplies, and increased staffing or training, provided that such costs are not compensated by another source. The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) has broad authority and discretion to determine payment eligibility and the amount of such payments.  Congress appropriated an additional $75 billion for healthcare providers through the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, which was signed into law on April 24, 2020, and an additional $3 billion was added through a federal stimulus bill enacted in December 2020. HHS is distributing this money through the Provider Relief Fund, and these payments do not need to be repaid to the extent they are used in compliance with the applicable requirements. Certain provisions of the CARES Act related to SNFs and/or ALFs are summarized below.

Distribution of Relief Funds:

Phases 1, 2, 3 General Distributions of $92.5 Billion to Healthcare Providers: HHS announced several distributions of congressional relief funds to healthcare providers, including
A Phase 1 General Distribution of approximately $50 billion to participants in the Medicare program equivalent to 2% of their annual revenue,
A Phase 2 General Distribution including $18 billion in funding to be provided to providers that participate in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program as well as ALF providers (up to 2% of their annual revenues) but who had not received funding in the initial rounds, and
A Phase 3 General Distribution of $20 billion in funding for frontline healthcare providers, including SNFs and ALFs, dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, which is intended to take into account financial losses caused by COVID-19.  In December 2020, HHS announced an additional $4.5 billion in Phase 3 General Distribution funding, with nursing homes receiving $1.10 billion in federal funding as part of the Phase 3 General Distribution. Providers that have already received relief fund payments may also apply for these funds, as well as certain behavioral health specialists and previously ineligible health care providers.

In addition, distributions may be conditioned on and subject to operators meeting certain compliance obligations. The ultimate allocation of these distributions to healthcare providers may differ from the methodology initially announced by HHS, in which distributions would be based on prior Medicare reimbursements or historical net patient revenue. 

Additional Targeted SNF Distributions of Approximately $9.5 Billion: In 2020, HHS announced several rounds of targeted distributions to skilled nursing facilities, including
A first round of approximately $4.9 billion announced in May 2020 to Medicare-certified SNFs from the Provider Relief Fund to offset revenue losses and assist nursing homes with additional costs related to responding to the COVID-19 public health emergency declared by HHS.
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A second round announced from August through September 2020, including additional targeted distributions of $4.5 billion from the Provider Relief Fund in total to SNFs to address critical needs in nursing homes related to infection control, such as the hiring of additional staff, implementing infection control “mentorship” programs with subject matter experts, increased testing, and providing additional technology services to residents who are unable to receive visitors.  The $4.5 billion of distributions included an initial $2.5 billion to be paid out to all Medicare-certified SNFs, as well as a second distribution of approximately $2 billion to be paid out as performance-based incentive payments, based on each nursing home’s infection rates relative to the county it is located in and mortality rates relative to a national standard for nursing homes, with the infection control component accounting for 80% of the incentive payment dollars and the mortality component accounting for 20% of the incentive payment. In October 2020, HHS announced the distribution of approximately $331 million in payments under the Nursing Home Quality Incentive Program for the September 2020 performance period. In December 2020, approximately $523 million in second round payments under the Nursing Home Quality Incentive Program were distributed for the October 2020 performance period. We believe HHS began distributions for the November 2020 performance period in January 2021.

HHS continues to evaluate and provide allocations of, and issue regulation and guidance regarding, grants made under the CARES Act. There are substantial uncertainties regarding the extent to which our operators will receive such funds, the financial impact of receiving such funds on their operations or financial condition, and whether operators will be able to meet the compliance requirements associated with the funds.       

Temporary Suspension of Medicare Sequestration:

SNFs have continued to be impacted by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, which extended Medicare sequestration and Medicare reimbursement cuts to providers and plans by 2% across the board through 2029. However, the CARES Act temporarily suspended Medicare sequestration for the period of May 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020, resulting in an increase in fee-for-service Medicare payments by approximately 2% as compared to what providers would have otherwise received during this period. In exchange for this temporary suspension, the CARES Act also extends the mandatory sequestration policy by an additional one year, i.e., through 2030. The Bipartisan-Bicameral Omnibus COVID Relief Deal passed in December 2020 extended the suspension of the Medicare sequestration until March 31, 2021.

Temporary Suspension of Certain Patient Coverage Criteria and Documentation and Care Requirements:

The CARES Act and a series of temporary waivers and guidance issued by the CMS suspend various Medicare patient coverage criteria as well as documentation and care requirements to provide regulatory relief to ensure patients continue to have adequate access to care notwithstanding the burdens placed on healthcare providers due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These regulatory actions could contribute to a change in census volumes and skilled nursing mix that may not otherwise have occurred.  It remains uncertain when federal and state regulators will resume enforcement of those regulations which are waived or otherwise not being enforced during the public health emergency due to the exercise of enforcement discretion.  

Medicare Accelerated and Advanced Payment Program:

In an effort to increase cash flow to providers impacted by COVID-19, CMS had temporarily expanded the Accelerated and Advance Payment Programs from March 28, 2020 until April 26, 2020 in order to provide accelerated or advance payments during the period of the public health emergency to any Medicare provider or supplier who submitted a request to the appropriate Medicare Administrative Contractor and met the required qualifications. Traditionally repayment of these advance/accelerated payments is set to begin at 90 days, however CMS initially extended the repayment of these accelerated/advance payments to begin 120 days after the date of issuance of the payment and in October 2020, further extended the repayment to begin one year after payment was issued for repayment to occur over an extended period of time.

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Payroll Tax Deferral:

The CARES Act additionally provided payroll tax relief for employers, allowing them to defer payment of employer Social Security taxes that are otherwise owed for wage payments made after March 27, 2020 through December 31, 2020. Instead of depositing these taxes on a next-day or semi-weekly basis, the deposit due date for 50% of the taxes is deferred to December 31, 2021, with the remaining 50% deferred until December 31, 2022.

Quality of Care Initiatives Related to COVID-19:

In addition to COVID-19 reimbursement changes, several regulatory initiatives announced in 2020 focused on addressing quality of care in long-term care facilities, including those related to COVID-19 testing and infection control protocols, staffing levels, reporting requirements, and visitation policies, as well as increased inspection of nursing homes. Recent updates to the Nursing Home Care website and the Five Star Quality Rating System include revisions to the inspection process, adjustment of staffing rating thresholds and the implementation of new quality measures. While, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, CMS made changes to, or temporarily suspended the collection and reporting of, certain survey inspection, staffing levels and quality measures, which impacted the information posted on the Nursing Home Compare website and used in the Five Star Quality Rating System calculation, CMS announced a new, targeted inspection plan to focus inspections on urgent patient safety threats and infection control, therefore causing a shift in the number of nursing homes inspected and how the inspections are conducted. In addition, in August 2020, CMS released a Medicaid Informational Bulletin that provided guidance to states on flexibilities that are available to increase Medicaid reimbursement for nursing facilities that implement specific infection control practices, such as designating a quarantine or isolation wing for COVID-19 patients.  Further, the Coronavirus Commission for Safety and Quality in Nursing Homes, a special task force created for the purpose of addressing the rising death toll of residents in nursing homes, issued recommendations in September 2020 with steps that both providers and regulators should take to address future pandemic conditions or public health emergencies.  

On June 16, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis announced the launch of an investigation into the COVID-19 response of nursing homes.  The Select Subcommittee is seeking information from CMS on the enforcement of health and safety regulations during the crisis, data collection, and provision of life-saving supplies.  Additionally, the Select Subcommittee is seeking documents and information from the five largest U.S. for-profit nursing home operators related to COVID-19 cases and deaths, testing, PPE, staffing levels and pay, legal violations, and efforts to prevent further infections, as well as additional transparency regarding the use of federal funds by nursing homes during the pandemic.  

Temporary Medicaid FMAP Increase. On March 18, 2020, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act was enacted in the U.S., providing a temporary 6.2% increase to each qualifying state and territory’s Medicaid Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (“FMAP”) effective January 1, 2020.  As part of the requirements for receiving the temporary FMAP increase, states must cover testing services and treatments for COVID-19 and may not impose deductibles, copayments, coinsurance or other cost sharing charges for any quarter in which the temporary increased FMAP is claimed. The temporary FMAP increase will extend through the last day of the calendar quarter in which the COVID-19 public health emergency declared by the HHS, including any extensions, terminates. HHS has announced an extension of the public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic through April 21, 2021. In addition to maintaining the increased FMAP, this extension also allows the temporary Section 1135 waivers, including suspension of the three-day prior hospital stay coverage requirement and the relaxation of telehealth restrictions, to continue. States will make individual determinations about how this additional Medicaid reimbursement will be applied to SNFs, if at all.

Reimbursement Generally:

Medicaid.  State budgetary concerns, coupled with the implementation of rules under the Healthcare Reform Law (described further below), or prospective changes to the Healthcare Reform Law, may result in additional significant changes in healthcare spending at the state level, which may particularly impact us in states where we have a larger presence, including Florida and Texas. In Texas in particular, several of our operators have experienced lower operating margins on their SNFs, as compared to other states, as a result of lower Medicaid reimbursement rates and higher labor costs. Additionally, the need to control Medicaid expenditures may be exacerbated by the potential for increased enrollment in Medicaid due to unemployment and declines in family incomes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Since our operators’ profit margins on Medicaid patients are generally relatively low, more than modest reductions in Medicaid reimbursement or an increase in the percentage of Medicaid patients has in the past and may in the future adversely affect our operators’ results of operations and financial condition, which in turn could adversely impact us.

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In mid-November 2019, CMS proposed the Medicaid Fiscal Accountability Rule (“MFAR”), which would have modified and refined the current federal portion of Medicaid funding for two programs commonly referred to as the upper payment limit (“UPL”) and provider taxes.  However, the CMS withdrew the proposed rule from the regulatory agenda on September 14, 2020 in response to concerns that had been raised by states and providers about potential unintended consequences of the proposed rule, including significant funding cuts to the Medicaid program annually. 

Medicare.  On July 31, 2020, CMS issued a final rule regarding the government fiscal year (“FY”) 2021 Medicare payment rates and quality payment programs for SNFs, with aggregate payments projected to increase by $750 million, or 2.2%, for FY 2021 compared to FY 2020. This estimated reimbursement increase is attributable to a 2.2% market basket increase factor with a 0.0% reduction for the multifactor productivity adjustment mandated by the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (“IMPACT Act”). The annual update is reduced by two percentage points for SNFs that fail to submit required quality data to CMS under the SNF Quality Reporting Program (“QRP”).  The final rule also adopted revised geographic delineations provided by the Office of Management and Budget to identify a provider’s status as an urban or rural facility and to calculate the wage index.  The CMS applied a five percent cap on any decreases in a provider’s wage index from FY 2020 to FY 2021.

Payments to providers continue to be increasingly tied to quality and efficiency.  The Patient Driven Payment Model (“PDPM”), which was designed by CMS to improve the incentives to treat the needs of the whole patient, rather than the volume of services the patient receives, became effective October 1, 2019 (FY 2020). Prior to COVID-19, we believed that certain of our operators could realize efficiencies and cost savings from increased concurrent and group therapy under PDPM and some had reported early positive results. Given the ongoing impacts of COVID-19, many operators are and may continue to be restricted from pursuing concurrent and group therapy and unable to realize these benefits. Additionally, our operators continue to adapt to the reimbursement changes and other payment reforms resulting from the value based purchasing programs applicable to SNFs under the 2014 Protecting Access to Medicare Act, which became effective on October 1, 2018.  These reimbursement changes have had and may in the future have an adverse effect on the operations and financial condition of some operators and could adversely impact the ability of operators to meet their obligations to us.    

On May 27, 2020, CMS added physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology to the list of approved telehealth Providers for the Medicare Part B programs provided by a skilled nursing facility as a part of the COVID-19 1135 waiver provisions. The COVID-19 1135 waiver provisions also allow for the facility to bill an originating site fee to CMS for telehealth services provided to Medicare Part B beneficiary residents of the facility when the services are provided by a physician from an alternate location, effective March 6, 2020 through the end of the public health emergency.

Other Regulation:

Office of the Inspector General Activities.  The Office of Inspector General (“OIG”) of HHS has provided long-standing guidance for SNFs regarding compliance with federal fraud and abuse laws.  More recently, the OIG has conducted increased oversight activities and issued additional guidance regarding its findings related to identified problems with the quality of care and the reporting and investigation of potential abuse or neglect at group homes, nursing homes, and skilled nursing facilities.  The OIG has additionally reviewed the staffing levels reported by SNFs as part of its August 2018 and February 2019 Work Plan updates, and included a review of involuntary transfers and discharges from nursing homes in the June 2019 Work Plan updates.  In August 2020, the OIG released its findings regarding its review of staffing levels in SNFs from 2018.  The OIG recommended that CMS enhance efforts to ensure nursing homes meet daily staffing requirements and explore ways to provide consumers with additional information on nursing homes’ daily staffing levels and variability.  The OIG indicated that while the review was initiated before the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, the 2020 pandemic reinforces the importance of sufficient staffing for nursing homes, as inadequate staffing can make it more difficult for nursing homes to respond to infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19.   It is unknown what impact, if any, enhanced scrutiny of staffing levels by OIG and CMS will have on our operators.  

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Department of Justice and Other Enforcement Actions. SNFs are under intense scrutiny for ensuring the quality of care being rendered to residents and appropriate billing practices conducted by the facility. The Department of Justice (“DOJ”) launched ten regional Elder Justice Task Forces in 2016 which are coordinating and enhancing efforts to pursue SNFs that provide grossly substandard care to their residents. These Task Forces are composed of representatives from the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices, State Medicaid Fraud Control Units, state and local prosecutors’ offices, HHS, State Adult Protective Services agencies, Long Term Care Ombudsmen programs, and law enforcement.  The DOJ has indicated that it is seeking to enhance the work of the Elder Justice Initiative to identify potential criminal charges when they uncover false claims for government reimbursements of care.  The DOJ’s civil division has historically used the False Claims Act to pursue nursing homes that bill the federal government for services not rendered or care that is grossly substandard. In 2020, the DOJ launched a National Nursing Home Initiative to coordinate and enhance civil and criminal enforcement actions against nursing homes with grossly substandard deficiencies such as poor hygiene, lax infection controls, and inadequate nurse staffing levels.  In addition, the CMS announced on August 14, 2020 that the agency has imposed more than $15 million in civil money penalties (“CMPs”) to more than 3,400 nursing homes during the public health emergency for noncompliance with infection control requirements and the failure to report COVID-19 data. Such enforcement activities are unpredictable and may develop over lengthy periods of time. An adverse resolution of any of these enforcement activities or investigations incurred by our operators may involve injunctive relief and/or substantial monetary penalties, either or both of which could have a material adverse effect on their reputation, business, results of operations and cash flows.

Medicare and Medicaid Program Audits.  Governmental agencies and their agents, such as the Medicare Administrative Contractors, fiscal intermediaries and carriers, as well as the OIG, CMS and state Medicaid programs, conduct audits of our operators’ billing practices from time to time.  CMS contracts with Recovery Audit Contractors on a contingency basis to conduct post-payment reviews to detect and correct improper payments in the fee-for-service Medicare program, to managed Medicare plans and in the Medicaid program.  Regional Recovery Audit Contractor program auditors along with the OIG and DOJ are expected to continue their efforts to evaluate SNF Medicare claims for any excessive therapy charges.  CMS also employs Medicaid Integrity Contractors to perform post-payment audits of Medicaid claims and identify overpayments. In addition, the state Medicaid agencies and other contractors have increased their review activities. To the extent any of our operators are found out of compliance with any of these laws, regulations or programs, their financial position and results of operations can be adversely impacted, which in turn could adversely impact us.

Fraud and Abuse. There are various federal and state civil and criminal laws and regulations governing a wide array of healthcare provider referrals, relationships and arrangements, including laws and regulations prohibiting fraud by healthcare providers. Many of these complex laws raise issues that have not been clearly interpreted by the relevant governmental authorities and courts.

These laws include: (i) federal and state false claims acts, which, among other things, prohibit providers from filing false claims or making false statements to receive payment from Medicare, Medicaid or other federal or state healthcare programs; (ii) federal and state anti-kickback and fee-splitting statutes, including the Medicare and Medicaid Anti-kickback statute, which prohibit the payment or receipt of remuneration to induce referrals or recommendations of healthcare items or services, such as services provided in a SNF; (iii) federal and state physician self-referral laws (commonly referred to as the Stark Law), which generally prohibit referrals by physicians to entities for designated health services (some of which are provided in SNFs) with which the physician or an immediate family member has a financial relationship; (iv) the federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibits, among other things, the knowing presentation of a false or fraudulent claim for certain healthcare services and (v) federal and state privacy laws, including the privacy and security rules contained in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, which provide for the privacy and security of personal health information.  

Violations of healthcare fraud and abuse laws carry civil, criminal and administrative sanctions, including punitive sanctions, monetary penalties, imprisonment, denial of Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement and potential exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid or other federal or state healthcare programs. Additionally, there are criminal provisions that prohibit filing false claims or making false statements to receive payment or certification under Medicare and Medicaid, as well as failing to refund overpayments or improper payments. Violation of the Anti-kickback statute or Stark Law may form the basis for a federal False Claims Act violation. These laws are enforced by a variety of federal, state and local agencies and can also be enforced by private litigants through, among other things, federal and state false claims acts, which allow private litigants to bring qui tam or whistleblower actions, which have become more frequent in recent years.  

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Several of our operators have responded to subpoenas and other requests for information regarding their operations in connection with inquiries by the Department of Justice or other regulatory agencies.  In addition, MedEquities Realty Trust, Inc., which we acquired in May 2019, has responded to a Civil Investigative Demand from the Department of Justice in connection with Lakeway Regional Medical Center. See Note 18 – Commitments and Contingencies.

Privacy. Our operators are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations designed to protect the confidentiality and security of patient health information, including the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”), and the corresponding regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively referred to herein as “HIPAA”). The HITECH Act expanded the scope of these provisions by mandating individual notification in instances of breaches of protected health information, providing enhanced penalties for HIPAA violations, and granting enforcement authority to states’ Attorneys General in addition to the HHS Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”).  Additionally, in a final rule issued in January 2013, HHS modified the standard for determining whether a breach has occurred by creating a presumption that any non-permitted acquisition, access, use or disclosure of protected health information is a breach unless the covered entity or business associate can demonstrate through a risk assessment that there is a low probability that the information has been compromised.  

Various states have similar laws and regulations that govern the maintenance and safeguarding of patient records, charts and other information generated in connection with the provision of professional medical services. These laws and regulations require our operators to expend the requisite resources to secure protected health information, including the funding of costs associated with technology upgrades. Operators found in violation of HIPAA or any other privacy law or regulation may face significant monetary penalties. In addition, compliance with an operator’s notification requirements in the event of a breach of unsecured protected health information could cause reputational harm to an operator’s business.

Licensing and Certification. Our operators and facilities are subject to various federal, state and local licensing and certification laws and regulations, including laws and regulations under Medicare and Medicaid requiring operators of SNFs and ALFs to comply with extensive standards governing operations. Governmental agencies administering these laws and regulations regularly inspect our operators’ facilities and investigate complaints. Our operators and their managers receive notices of observed violations and deficiencies from time to time, and sanctions have been imposed from time to time on facilities operated by them. In addition, many states require certain healthcare providers to obtain a certificate of need, which requires prior approval for the construction, expansion or closure of certain healthcare facilities, which has the potential to impact some of our operators’ abilities to expand or change their businesses.

Other Laws and Regulations.  Additional federal, state and local laws and regulations affect how our operators conduct their operations, including laws and regulations protecting consumers against deceptive practices and otherwise generally affecting our operators’ management of their property and equipment and the conduct of their operations (including laws and regulations involving fire, health and safety; the Americans with Disabilities Act (the “ADA”), which imposes certain requirements to make facilities accessible to persons with disabilities, the costs for which we may be directly or indirectly responsible; the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the “Healthcare Reform Law”), which amended requirements for staff training, discharge planning, infection prevention and control programs, and pharmacy services, among others; staffing; quality of services, including care and food service; residents’ rights, including abuse and neglect laws; and health standards, including those set by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (in the U.S.).  It is anticipated that our operators will continue to face additional federal and state regulatory requirements related to the operation of their facilities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These requirements may continue to evolve and develop over lengthy periods of time.

General and Professional Liability.  Although arbitration agreements have been effective in limiting general and professional liabilities for SNF and long term care providers, there have been numerous lawsuits in recent years challenging the validity of arbitration agreements in long term care settings.  On July 16, 2019, CMS issued a final rule lifting the prohibition on pre-dispute arbitration agreements offered to residents at the time of admission provided that certain requirements are met.  The rule prohibits providers from requiring residents to sign binding arbitration agreements as a condition for receiving care and requires that the agreements specifically grant residents the explicit right to rescind the agreement within thirty calendar days of signing.  A growing number of professional liability and employment related claims have been filed or are threatened to be filed against long-term care providers related to COVID-19. While such claims may be subject to liability protection provisions within various state executive orders or legislation and/or federal legislation, an adverse resolution of any of legal proceeding or investigations against our operators may involve injunctive relief and/or substantial monetary penalties, either or both of which could have a material adverse effect on our operators’ reputation, business, results of operations and cash flows.

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Human Capital Management

As of February 1, 2021, we had 68 full-time employees, including the five executive officers listed below. Due to the size and nature of our business, our future performance depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our executive management team and other key employees. As such, the ability to attract, develop and retain qualified personnel will continue to be key to the Company’s long-term success.

We are committed to providing a positive and engaging work environment for our employees and taking an active role in the betterment of the communities in which our employees live and work. Our employees are provided a competitive benefits program, including comprehensive healthcare benefits, a 401(k) plan with a matching contribution, bonus and incentive pay opportunities, an employee stock purchase program, competitive paid time-off benefits and paid parental leave, wellness programs, continuing education and development opportunities, and periodic engagement surveys.

We also have a long-standing commitment to being an equal opportunity employer and have implemented equal employer opportunity policies. Omega was one of 380 companies across 11 sectors to be included in the 2021 Bloomberg Gender-Equality Index. In addition, we believe that giving back to our community is an extension of our mission to improve the lives of our employees and their families. The Company has implemented a matching program for charitable contributions.

Information about our Executive Officers

Biographical information regarding our executive officers and their ages as of February 1, 2021 are set forth below:

C. Taylor Pickett (59) is our Chief Executive Officer and has served in this capacity since June 2001. Mr. Pickett has also served as Director of the Company since May 30, 2002. Mr. Pickett has also been a member of the board of trustees of Corporate Office Properties Trust, an office REIT focusing on U.S. government agencies and defense contractors, since November 2013. From January 1993 to June 2001, Mr. Pickett served as a member of the senior management team of Integrated Health Services, Inc., most recently as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Integrated Health Services, Inc. Mr. Pickett held various positions at PHH Corporation and KPMG Peat Marwick.

Daniel J. Booth (57) is our Chief Operating Officer and has served in this capacity since October 2001. From 1993 to October 2001, Mr. Booth served as a member of the management team of Integrated Health Services, Inc., most recently serving as Senior Vice President, Finance. Prior to joining Integrated Health Services, Inc., Mr. Booth served as a Vice President in the Healthcare Lending Division of Maryland National Bank (now Bank of America).

Steven J. Insoft (57) is our Chief Corporate Development Officer and has served in this capacity since April 1, 2015. Mr. Insoft served as President and Chief Operating Officer of Aviv REIT, Inc. from 2012 until it was acquired by Omega in 2015, while previously serving as Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of Aviv REIT, Inc. Prior to joining Aviv REIT, Inc. in 2005, Mr. Insoft spent eight years as a Vice President and Senior Investment Officer of Nationwide Health Properties, Inc., a publicly-traded REIT. Before that, he was President and Chief Financial Officer of CMI Senior Housing & Healthcare, Inc., a privately-held nursing home and assisted living facility operations and development company, for seven years.

Robert O. Stephenson (57) is our Chief Financial Officer and has served in this capacity since August 2001. From 1996 to July 2001, Mr. Stephenson served as the Senior Vice President and Treasurer of Integrated Health Services, Inc. Prior to joining Integrated Health Services, Inc., Mr. Stephenson held various positions at CSX Intermodal, Inc., Martin Marietta Corporation and Electronic Data Systems.

Gail D. Makode (45) is our Chief Legal Officer, General Counsel and has served in this capacity since September 2019. Previously, she served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of IES Holdings, Inc., from October 2012 to September 2019. Prior to IES, she served in various legal capacities at MBIA Inc., including as General Counsel and Member of the Board at MBIA Insurance Corporation and Chief Compliance Officer of MBIA Inc., from 2006 to 2012. Earlier in her career, she served as Vice President and Counsel for Deutsche Bank AG, and as an associate at Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen, & Hamilton, where she specialized in public and private securities offerings and mergers and acquisitions. 

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Available Information

Our website address is www.omegahealthcare.com. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) are available on our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish them to, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Additionally, the SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us, at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A – Risk Factors

This section discusses material risk factors that may affect our business, operations and financial condition. It does not describe all risks and uncertainties applicable to us, our industry or ownership of our securities. If any of the following risks, or any other risks and uncertainties that are not addressed below or that we have not yet identified, actually occur, we could be materially adversely affected and the value of our securities could decline.

Risks Related to the Operators of Our Facilities

Our financial position could be weakened and our ability to make distributions and fulfill our obligations with respect to our indebtedness could be limited if our operators, or a portion thereof, become unable to meet their obligations to us or fail to renew or extend their relationship with us as their lease terms expire or their mortgages mature, or if we become unable to lease or re-lease our facilities or make mortgage loans on economically favorable terms. We have no operational control over our operators.

The bankruptcy or insolvency of our operators could limit or delay our ability to recover on our investments.

We are exposed to the risk that a distressed or insolvent operator may not be able to meet its lease, loan, mortgage or other obligations to us or other third parties. This risk is heightened during a period of economic or political instability. Although each of our lease and loan agreements typically provides us with the right to terminate, evict an operator, foreclose on our collateral, demand immediate payment and exercise other remedies upon the bankruptcy or insolvency of an operator, title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”) would limit or, at a minimum, delay our ability to collect unpaid pre-bankruptcy rents and mortgage payments and to pursue other remedies against a bankrupt operator.  While we sometimes have third party guarantees of an operator’s lease or loan obligations, such guarantees can be expensive to enforce, and have their own risks of collection as against the guarantors.

Leases. A bankruptcy filing by one of our lessee operators would typically prevent us from collecting unpaid pre-bankruptcy rents or evicting the operator, absent approval of the bankruptcy court. The Bankruptcy Code provides a lessee with the option to assume or reject an unexpired lease within certain specified periods of time. Generally, a lessee is required to pay all rent that becomes payable between the date of its bankruptcy filing and the date of the assumption or rejection of the lease (although such payments will likely be delayed as a result of the bankruptcy filing). If one of our lessee operators chooses to assume its lease with us, the operator must promptly cure all monetary defaults existing under the lease (including payment of unpaid pre-bankruptcy rents) and provide adequate assurance of its ability to perform its future lease obligations. Even where a lessee operator assumes its lease with us, it will first often threaten to reject that lease to obtain better lease terms from us, and we sometimes have to consider making, or we do make, such economic concessions to avoid rejection of the lease and our taking a closed facility back. If one of our lessee operators opts to reject its lease with us, we would have a claim against such operator for unpaid and future rents payable under the lease, but such claim would be subject to a statutory “cap” under the Bankruptcy Code, and would likely result in a recovery substantially less than the face value of such claim. Although the operator’s rejection of the lease would permit us to recover possession of the leased facility, we would likely face losses, costs and delays associated with repairs and/or maintenance of the facility and then re-leasing the facility to a new operator, or costs associated with selling the facility. In any event, re-leasing a facility or selling it could take a material amount of time, and the pool of interested and qualified tenants or buyers will be limited due to the unique nature of our properties, which may depress values and our eventual recovery.  Finally, whether a lease operator in bankruptcy ends up assuming or rejecting our lease, we will incur legal and collection costs, which can be difficult or impossible to recover.

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Several other factors could impact our rights under leases with bankrupt operators. First, the operator could seek to assign its lease with us to a third party. The Bankruptcy Code disregards anti-assignment provisions in leases to permit the assignment of unexpired leases to third parties (provided all monetary defaults under the lease are promptly cured and the assignee can demonstrate its ability to perform its obligations under the lease). Second, in instances in which we have entered into a master lease agreement with an operator that operates more than one facility, the bankruptcy court could determine that the master lease was comprised of separate, divisible leases (each of which could be separately assumed or rejected), rather than a single, integrated lease (which would have to be assumed or rejected in its entirety). Finally, the bankruptcy court could re-characterize our lease agreement as a disguised financing arrangement, which could require us to receive bankruptcy court approval to foreclose or pursue other remedies with respect to the facility.

Mortgages. A bankruptcy filing by an operator to which we have made a loan secured by a mortgage would typically prevent us from collecting unpaid pre-bankruptcy mortgage payments and foreclosing on our collateral, absent approval of the bankruptcy court. As an initial matter, we could ask the bankruptcy court to order the operator to make periodic payments or provide other financial assurances to us during the bankruptcy case (known as “adequate protection”), but the ultimate decision regarding “adequate protection” (including the timing and amount of any “adequate protection” payments) rests with the bankruptcy court. In addition, we would need bankruptcy court approval before commencing or continuing any foreclosure action against the operator’s collateral (including a facility). The bankruptcy court could withhold such approval, especially if the operator can demonstrate that the facility or other collateral is necessary for an effective reorganization and that we have a sufficient “equity cushion” in the facility or that we are otherwise protected from any diminution in value of the collateral. If the bankruptcy court does not either grant us “adequate protection” or permit us to foreclose on our collateral, we may not receive any loan payments until after the bankruptcy court confirms a plan of reorganization for the operator.  In addition, in any bankruptcy case of an operator to which we have made a loan, the operator may seek bankruptcy court approval to pay us (i) over a longer period of time than the terms of our loan, (ii) at a different interest rate, and/or (iii) for only the value of the collateral, instead of the full amount of the loan.  Finally, even if the bankruptcy court permits us to foreclose on the facility, we would still be subject to the losses, costs and other risks associated with a foreclosure sale, including possible successor liability under government programs, indemnification obligations and suspension or delay of third-party payments. Should such events occur, our income and cash flow from operations would be adversely affected.

Failure by our operators to comply with government regulations may adversely impact their ability to make debt or lease payments to us.

Our operators are subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations, including those described below, that are subject to frequent and substantial changes (sometimes applied retroactively) resulting from new legislation, adoption of rules and regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations of existing law, and any changes in the regulatory framework could have a material adverse effect on our tenants, operators, guarantors and managers. Any of these changes may be more pronounced following federal and state leadership changes and particularly following a change in presidential administrations. The ultimate timing or effect of these changes cannot be predicted. These changes may have a dramatic effect on our operators’ costs of doing business and on the amount of reimbursement by both government and other third-party payors. The failure of any of our operators to comply with these laws, requirements and regulations could adversely affect their ability to meet their obligations to us.

Reimbursement; Medicare and Medicaid. A significant portion of our operators’ revenue is derived from governmentally-funded reimbursement programs, primarily Medicare and Medicaid. Failure to maintain certification in these programs, or other restrictions on reimbursements, would result in a loss of reimbursement from such programs and could result in a reduction in an operator’s revenues and operating margins, thereby negatively impacting an operator’s ability to meet its obligations to us.
Quality of Care Initiatives. The CMS has implemented several initiatives focused on the quality of care provided by nursing homes that could affect our operators, including a quality rating system for nursing homes. Any unsatisfactory rating of our operators under any rating system promulgated by the CMS could result in the loss of our operators’ residents or lower reimbursement rates, which could adversely impact their revenues and our business.

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Licensing and Certification. Our operators and facilities are subject to various federal, state and local licensing and certification laws and regulations, including laws and regulations under Medicare and Medicaid requiring operators of SNFs and ALFs to comply with extensive standards governing operations. Governmental agencies administering these laws and regulations regularly inspect our operators’ facilities and investigate complaints. Our operators and their managers receive notices of observed violations and deficiencies from time to time, and sanctions have been imposed from time to time on facilities operated by them. Failure to obtain, or the loss or suspension of, any required licensure or certification, or any violations or deficiencies with respect to relevant operating standards may require a facility to cease operations or result in ineligibility for reimbursement until any such failures, violations or deficiencies are cured. In such event, our revenues from these facilities could be reduced or eliminated for an extended period of time or permanently. Additionally, many states require certain healthcare providers to obtain a certificate of need, which requires prior approval for the construction, expansion, closure or change of ownership of certain healthcare facilities, which has the potential to impact some of our operators’ abilities to expand or change their businesses.  Further, Medicare and Medicaid provider approvals, as applicable, may be needed prior to an operator’s change of ownership.
Fraud and Abuse Laws and Regulations. There are various federal and state civil and criminal laws and regulations governing a wide array of healthcare provider referrals, relationships and arrangements, including laws and regulations prohibiting fraud by healthcare providers.  In addition to our operators, there is the potential that we may become subject directly to healthcare laws and regulations because of the broad nature of some these provisions.  Many of these complex laws raise issues that have not been clearly interpreted by the relevant governmental authorities and courts and are subject to change. In addition, federal and state governments are devoting increasing attention and resources to anti-fraud investigations and initiatives against healthcare providers, and provide for, among other things, claims to be filed by qui tam relators. The violation by an operator of any of these extensive laws or regulations, including the Anti-kickback Statute, False Claims Act and the Stark Law, could result in the imposition of criminal fines and imprisonment, civil monetary penalties, and exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid and all other federal and state healthcare programs.  Such fines or penalties, in addition to expending considerable resources responding to an investigation or enforcement action, could adversely affect an operator’s financial position and jeopardize an operator’s ability to make lease or mortgage payments to us or to continue operating its facility. Additionally, many states have adopted or are considering legislative proposals similar to the federal anti-fraud and abuse laws, some of which extend beyond the Medicare and Medicaid programs to private or other third-party payors, to prohibit the payment or receipt of remuneration for the referral of patients and physician self-referrals, regardless of whether the service was reimbursed by Medicare or Medicaid.  Healthcare providers and facilities may also experience an increase in medical record reviews from a host of government agencies and contractors.
Privacy and Security Laws. Our operators are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations designed to protect the privacy and security of patient health information, including HIPAA, among others, and which require our operators to expend resources to protect the confidentiality and security of patient health information, including for operational and technology upgrades. Operators found in violation of these laws may face significant monetary penalties. In addition, a breach of unsecured protected health information could cause reputational harm to an operator’s business in addition to a material adverse effect on the operator’s financial position and cash flows.
Other Laws. Other federal, state and local laws and regulations affect how our operators conduct their operations. See Item 1. Business – Government Regulation and Reimbursement – Other Laws and Regulations. We cannot predict the effect that the costs of complying with these laws may have on the revenues of our operators, and thus their ability to meet their obligations to us.
Legislative and Regulatory Developments. Each year, legislative and regulatory proposals are introduced at the federal, state and local levels that, if adopted, would result in major changes to the healthcare system.  We cannot accurately predict whether any proposals will be adopted, and if adopted, what effect (if any) these proposals would have on our operators or our business.  If we fail to effectively implement or appropriately adjust our operational and strategic initiatives with respect to the implementation of new laws and regulations, or do not do so as effectively as our competitors, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

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Our operators depend on reimbursement from governmental and other third-party payors, and reimbursement rates from such payors may be reduced or modified, including through reductions to the Medicare and Medicaid programs.

Changes in the reimbursement rate or methods of payment from governmental and other third-party payors, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or the implementation of other measures to reduce reimbursements for services provided by our operators has in the past, and could in the future, result in a substantial reduction in our operators’ revenues and operating margins. Reimbursement from governmental and other third party payors could be reduced as part of spending cuts and tax reform initiatives that impact Medicare, Medicaid or Medicare Advantage Plans, or as part of retroactive adjustments during claims settlement processes or as a result of post-payment audits. Further, alternative payment models, as well as other legislative initiatives, have the potential to affect Medicare payments to SNFs, including, but not limited to, provisions changing the payment methodology, setting reimbursement caps, implementing value based purchasing and payment bundling, and studying the appropriateness of restrictions on payments for health care acquired conditions. In some cases, states have enacted or are considering enacting measures designed to reduce Medicaid expenditures or freeze Medicaid rates and to make changes to private healthcare insurance, and several commercial payors have expressed an intent to pursue certain value-based purchasing models and initiatives. Since our operators’ profit margins on Medicaid patients are generally relatively low, more than modest reductions in Medicaid reimbursement and an increase in the number of Medicaid patients could place some operators in financial distress, which in turn could adversely affect us. If funding for Medicare and/or Medicaid is reduced, it could have a material adverse effect on our operators’ results of operations and financial condition, which could adversely affect our operators’ ability to meet their obligations to us. Significant limits on the scope of services reimbursed and on reimbursement rates, as well as changes in reimbursement policies or other measures altering payment methodologies for services provided by our operators, could have a material adverse effect on our operators’ results of operations and financial condition, which could cause the revenues of our operators to decline and negatively impact their ability to meet their obligations to us.

We may be unable to find a replacement operator for one or more of our leased properties.

From time to time, we need to find a replacement operator for one or more of our leased properties for a variety of reasons, including upon the expiration of the lease term or the occurrence of an operator default. While we are attempting to locate one or more replacement operators, we sometimes experience and may in the future experience a decrease or cessation of rental payments on the applicable property or properties. We cannot assure you that any of our current or future operators will elect to renew their respective leases with us upon expiration of the terms thereof. Similarly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to locate a suitable replacement operator or, if we are successful in locating a replacement operator, that the rental payments from the new operator would not be significantly less than the existing rental payments. Our ability to locate a suitable replacement operator may be significantly delayed or limited by various state licensing, receivership, certificate of need or other laws, as well as by Medicare and Medicaid change-of-ownership rules. We also may incur substantial additional expenses in connection with any such licensing, receivership or change-of-ownership proceedings. Any such delays, limitations and expenses could materially delay or impact our ability to collect rent, obtain possession of leased properties or otherwise exercise remedies for default.

Our operators may be subject to significant legal actions that could result in their increased operating costs and substantial uninsured liabilities, which may affect their ability to meet their obligations to us; and we may become party to such legal actions.

Our operators may be subject to claims for damages relating to the services that they provide. While we are unable to predict the scope of future federal, state and local regulations and legislation, including the Medicare and Medicaid statutes and regulations, we believe that long-term care providers will continue to be the focus of governmental investigations, particularly in the area of Medicare/Medicaid false claims and in the use of COVID-19 related funds and compliance with infection control and quality standards. We can give no assurance that the insurance coverage maintained by our operators will cover all claims made against them or continue to be available at a reasonable cost, if at all. In some states, insurance coverage for the risk of punitive damages arising from professional and general liability claims and/or litigation may not, in certain cases, be available to operators due to state law prohibitions or limitations of availability. As a result, our operators operating in these states may be liable for punitive damage awards that are either not covered or are in excess of their insurance policy limits.

Any adverse determination in a legal proceeding or governmental investigation, whether currently asserted or arising in the future, could have a material adverse effect on an operator’s financial condition and its ability to meet its obligations to us, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.    

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In addition, we may in some circumstances be named as a defendant in litigation involving the services provided by our operators. In the past, we and several of our wholly owned subsidiaries have been named as defendants in professional liability and general liability claims related to our owned and operated facilities, and we could be named as defendants in similar suits in the future. In these suits, patients of our operators have alleged significant damages, including punitive damages, against the defendants. Although we generally have no involvement in the services provided by our operators, and our standard lease and loan agreements generally require our operators to indemnify us and carry insurance to cover us in certain cases, a significant judgment against us in such litigation could exceed our and our operators’ insurance coverage, which would require us to make payments to cover the judgment.  

Increased competition as well as increased operating costs result in lower revenues for some of our operators and may affect the ability of our operators to meet their obligations to us.

The long-term healthcare industry is highly competitive and we expect that it may become more competitive in the future. Our operators are competing with numerous other companies providing similar healthcare services or alternatives such as home health agencies, life care at home, community-based service programs, retirement communities and convalescent centers. Our operators compete on a number of different levels including the quality of care provided, reputation, the physical appearance of a facility, price, the range of services offered, family preference, alternatives for healthcare delivery, the supply of competing properties, physicians, staff, referral sources, location and the size and demographics of the population in the surrounding areas. Our operators may encounter increased competition in the future that could limit their ability to attract residents or expand their businesses and therefore affect their ability to pay their lease or mortgage payments and meet their obligations to us.

In addition, the market for qualified personnel is highly competitive and our operators may experience difficulties in attracting and retaining such personnel, in particular due to labor constraints and, in some cases, wage increases imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Increases in labor costs could affect our operators’ ability to meet their obligations to us, which could be particularly acute in certain states that have established minimum staffing requirements.

We may be unable to successfully foreclose on the collateral securing our mortgage loans, and even if we are successful in our foreclosure efforts, we may be unable to successfully find a replacement operator, or operate or occupy the underlying real estate, which may adversely affect our ability to recover our investments.

If an operator defaults under one of our mortgage loans, we may foreclose on the loan or otherwise protect our interest by acquiring title to the property. In such a scenario, we may be required to make substantial improvements or repairs to maximize the facility’s investment potential. Operators may contest enforcement of foreclosure or other remedies, seek bankruptcy protection against our exercise of enforcement or other remedies and/or bring claims for lender liability in response to actions to enforce mortgage obligations. Even if we are able to successfully foreclose on the collateral securing our mortgage loans, we may be unable to expeditiously find a replacement operator, if at all, or otherwise successfully operate or occupy the property, which could adversely affect our ability to recover our investment.

Uninsured losses or losses in excess of our operators’ insurance coverage could adversely affect our financial position and our cash flow.

Under the terms of our leases, our operators are generally required to maintain comprehensive general liability, fire, flood, earthquake, boiler and machinery, nursing home or long-term care professional liability and extended coverage insurance with respect to our properties with policy specifications set forth in the leases or other written agreements between us and the operator. However, our properties may be adversely affected by casualty losses which exceed insurance coverages and reserves. In addition, we cannot provide any assurances that our tenants will maintain the required coverages, that we will continue to require the same levels of insurance under our leases, or that such insurance will be available at a reasonable cost in the future or that the policies maintained will fully cover all losses on our properties upon the occurrence of a catastrophic event. We also cannot make any guaranty as to the future financial viability of the insurers that underwrite the policies maintained by our tenants, or, alternatively if our tenants utilize captive or self-insurance programs, that such programs will be adequately funded.

Should an uninsured loss or a loss in excess of insured limits occur, we could lose both our investment in, and anticipated profits and cash flows from, the property and disputes over insurance claims could arise. Even if it were practicable to restore the property to its condition prior to the damage caused by a major casualty, the operations of the affected property would likely be suspended for a considerable period of time.

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Our development and redevelopment projects may not yield anticipated returns.

We consider and, when appropriate, invest in various development and redevelopment projects. In deciding whether to make an investment in a particular project, we make certain assumptions regarding the expected future performance of the property. Our assumptions are subject to risks generally associated with development and redevelopment projects, including, among others, that:

Our operators may not be able to complete the project on schedule or within budgeted amounts;
Our operators may encounter delays in obtaining or fail to obtain all necessary zoning, land use, building, occupancy, environmental and other governmental permits and authorizations, or underestimate the costs necessary to develop or redevelop the property to market standards;
Volatility in the price of construction materials or labor may increase project costs;
The builders may fail to perform or satisfy the expectations of our operators;
We may incorrectly forecast risks associated with development in new geographic regions;
Demand for our project may decrease prior to completion, due to competition from other developments; and
New facilities may take longer than expected to reach stabilized operating levels, if at all.

If any of the risks described above occur, our development and redevelopment projects may not yield anticipated returns, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

Risks Related to Us and Our Operations

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures intended to prevent its spread could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly adversely impacted, and may continue to so impact, SNFs and long term care providers generally, with higher rates of virus transmission and fatality among the elderly and frail populations these facilities serve. As a result, many of our operators have been and may continue to be significantly impacted by the pandemic. In addition to experiencing outbreaks of positive cases and deaths of residents and employees during the pandemic, our operators have been required to, and continue to, adapt their operations rapidly throughout the pandemic to manage the spread of the COVID-19 virus as well as the implementation of new treatments and vaccines, and to implement new requirements relating to infection control, PPE, quality of care, visitation protocols, staffing levels, and reporting, among other regulations, throughout the pandemic. It remains uncertain when and to what extent vaccination programs for COVID-19, which have been implemented in many of our facilities, will mitigate the effects of COVID-19 in our facilities; the impact of these programs will depend in part on the speed, distribution, and delivery of the vaccine in our facilities, as well as participation levels in vaccination programs among the residents and employees of our operators. Our operators have reported considerable variation in participation levels among both employees and residents, which may change over time as additional vaccination clinics are held.

In addition to the risks associated with managing the spread of the virus, delivery of the vaccines and care of their patients and residents, many of our operators reported incurring, and may continue to incur, significant cost increases as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, with dramatic increases for facilities with positive cases. We believe these increases primarily stem from elevated labor costs, including increased use of overtime and bonus pay, as well as a significant increase in both the cost and usage of PPE, testing equipment and processes and supplies, as well as implementation of new infection control protocols and delivery of the vaccine. In addition, many of our operators have reported experiencing declines in occupancy levels as a result of the pandemic. We believe these declines may be in part due to COVID-19-induced fatalities at the facilities, the delay of SNF placement and/or utilization of alternative care settings for those with lower level of care needs, the suspension or postponement of elective hospital procedures, fewer discharges from hospitals to SNFs and higher hospital readmittances from SNFs. While substantial government support, primarily through the federal CARES Act and distribution of PPE and testing equipment by the federal government, has been allocated to SNFs and to a lesser extent to ALFs, further government support will likely be needed to continue to offset these impacts and it is unclear whether and to what extent such government support has been and will continue to be sufficient and timely to offset these impacts.  Further, to the extent these impacts continue or accelerate and are not offset by additional government relief that is sufficient and timely, the operating results of our operators are likely to be adversely affected, some may be unwilling or unable to pay their contractual obligations to us in full or on a timely basis and we may be unable to restructure such obligations on terms as favorable to us as those currently in place.  Even if operators are able to avail themselves of government relief to offset some of these costs, they may face challenges in complying with the terms and conditions of government support and may face longer-term adverse impacts to their personnel and business operations from the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential patient litigation and decreased demand for their services, loss of business due to an interruption in their operations, or other liabilities related to gathering restrictions, quarantines, reopening plans, vaccine distribution or delivery, spread of infection or other related factors.

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Numerous state and local governments and the federal government have initiated efforts that may also affect landlords’ and/or mortgagees’ ability to collect payments due or enforce remedies for the failure to pay amounts due. Additionally, a growing number of professional liability and employment related claims have been filed or are threatened to be filed against long-term care providers related to the COVID-19 pandemic. While such claims may be subject to liability protection provisions within various state executive orders or legislation and/or federal legislation, an adverse resolution of any of legal proceeding or investigations against our operators may involve injunctive relief and/or substantial monetary penalties, either or both of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and cash flows.

The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused, and is likely to continue to cause, severe economic, market and other disruptions worldwide. The pandemic has led governments and other authorities in the U.S., U.K. and around the world to impose measures intended to control its spread, including but not limited to, restrictions on freedom of movement and business operations which may remain in place along with continuing uncertainty around the potential duration of the pandemic. We cannot assure you that conditions in the bank lending, capital and other financial markets will not deteriorate as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, or that our access to capital and other sources of funding will not become constrained, which could adversely affect the availability and terms of future borrowings, renewals or refinancing.  In addition, our employees may be impacted directly or indirectly by the pandemic and we may be required to make changes to our internal controls as a result of changes in our business processes or personnel; any such changes may increase our operational and financial reporting risks.

The extent of the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on our and our operators’ operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the ability to control the spread of the outbreak generally and in our facilities, and the delivery of and participation in vaccination programs and other treatments for COVID-19, government funds and other support for the senior care sector and the efficacy of other policies and measures that may mitigate the impact of the pandemic, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict. Due to these uncertainties, we are not able at this time to estimate the effect of these factors on our business, but the adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be material.

There are no assurances of our ability to pay dividends in the future.

Our ability to pay dividends may be adversely affected upon the occurrence of any of the risks described herein. Our payment of dividends is subject to compliance with restrictions contained in our credit agreements, the indentures governing our senior notes and any preferred stock that our Board may from time to time designate and authorize for issuance. All dividends will be paid at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon our earnings, our financial condition, maintenance of our REIT status and such other factors as our Board may deem relevant from time to time. There are no assurances of our ability to pay dividends in the future. In addition, our dividends in the past have included, and may in the future include a return of capital.

We rely on external sources of capital to fund future capital needs, and if we encounter difficulty in obtaining such capital, we may not be able to make future investments necessary to grow our business or meet maturing commitments.

As a REIT under the Code, we are required to, among other things, distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income each year to our stockholders. Because of this distribution requirement, we may not be able to fund, from cash retained from operations, all future capital needs, including capital needed to make investments and to satisfy or refinance maturing commitments. As a result, we rely on external sources of capital, including debt and equity financing. If we are unable to obtain needed capital at all or only on unfavorable terms from these sources, we might not be able to make the investments needed to grow our business, or to meet our obligations and commitments as they mature, which could negatively affect the ratings of our debt and even, in extreme circumstances, affect our ability to continue operations. We may not be in a position to take advantage of future investment opportunities in the event that we are unable to access the capital markets on a timely basis or we are only able to obtain financing on unfavorable terms.

Our ability to raise capital through equity sales is dependent, in part, on the market price of our common stock, and our failure to meet market expectations with respect to our business, or other factors we do not control, could negatively impact such market price and availability of equity capital.

As with other publicly-traded companies, the availability of equity capital will depend, in part, on the market price of our common stock which, in turn, will depend upon various market conditions and other factors, some of which we cannot control, that may change from time to time including:

the extent of investor interest;
the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of their equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate-based companies;
the financial performance of us and our operators;
concentrations in our investment portfolio by tenant and facility type;

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concerns about our tenants’ financial condition due to uncertainty regarding reimbursement from governmental and other third-party payor programs;
our credit ratings and analyst reports on us and the REIT industry in general, including recommendations, and our ability to meet our guidance estimates or analysts’ estimates;
general economic, global and market conditions, including changes in interest rates on fixed income securities, which may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to demand a higher annual yield from future distributions;
our failure to maintain or increase our dividend, which is dependent, to a large part, on the increase in funds from operations, which in turn depends upon increased revenues from additional investments and rental increases; and
other factors such as governmental regulatory action and changes in REIT tax laws, as well as changes in litigation and regulatory proceedings.

The market value of the equity securities of a REIT is generally based upon the market’s perception of the REIT’s growth potential and its current and potential future earnings and cash distributions. Our failure to meet the market’s expectation with regard to future earnings and cash distributions would likely adversely affect the market price of our common stock and, as a result, the availability of equity capital to us. 

We are subject to risks associated with debt financing, including changes in our credit ratings, which could negatively impact our business and limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and to repay maturing debt.

The financing required to make future investments and satisfy maturing commitments may be provided by borrowings under our credit facilities, private or public offerings of debt or equity, the assumption of secured indebtedness, mortgage financing on a portion of our owned portfolio or through joint ventures. To the extent we must obtain debt financing from external sources to fund our capital requirements, we cannot guarantee such financing will be available on favorable terms, if at all. In addition, if we are unable to refinance or extend principal payments due at maturity or pay them with proceeds from other capital transactions, our cash flow may not be sufficient to make distributions to our stockholders and repay our maturing debt. Furthermore, if prevailing interest rates, changes in our debt credit ratings or other factors at the time of refinancing result in higher interest rates upon refinancing, the interest expense relating to that refinanced indebtedness would increase, which could reduce our profitability and the amount of dividends we are able to pay. Factors that may affect our credit ratings include, among other things, our financial performance, our success in raising sufficient equity capital, adverse changes in our debt and fixed charge coverage ratios, our capital structure and level of indebtedness and pending or future changes in the regulatory framework applicable to our operators and our industry. Further, additional debt financing increases the amount of our leverage. The degree of leverage could have important consequences to stockholders, including affecting our investment grade ratings and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future, and making us more vulnerable to a downturn in our results of operations or the economy generally.

The interest rate of our credit facilities, term loan facilities and derivatives contracts are priced using LIBOR and are subject to risks associated with the transition from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate.

London Inter-bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) is the basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on the London interbank market and is widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. We typically use LIBOR as a reference rate in credit facilities, term loan facilities and derivative contracts. In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) that regulates LIBOR announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021, and while the transition period for many LIBOR tenors has been extended to June 2023, the United States Federal Reserve has advised banks to stop new LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. In light of these recent announcements, the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain and any changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined or regulatory activity related to LIBOR’s phaseout could cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past or cease to exist. Further, the consequences of these developments, or any alternative reference rate that is adopted, cannot be entirely predicted but could include an increase in the cost of our variable rate borrowings, of which we had $287.9 million of borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and $450 million notional value derivative instruments that are indexed to LIBOR. For some instruments, the method of transitioning to an alternative rate may be challenging, as this may require negotiation with the respective counterparty.

We may be subject to additional risks in connection with our acquisitions of long-term care facilities.

We may be subject to additional risks in connection with our acquisitions of long-term care facilities, including but not limited to the following:

our limited prior business experience with certain of the operators of the facilities we have recently acquired or may acquire in the future;

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the facilities may underperform due to various factors, including unfavorable terms and conditions of the lease agreements that we assume, disruptions caused by the management of the operators of the facilities or changes in economic conditions impacting the facilities and/or the operators;
large acquisitions or investments could place significant additional demands on, and require us to expand, our management, resources and personnel, as well as to adapt our administrative, accounting and operational systems to integrate and manage the long-term care facilities we have acquired or may acquire in a timely manner;
diversion of our management’s attention away from other business concerns;
exposure to any undisclosed or unknown potential liabilities relating to the facilities; and
potential underinsured losses on the facilities.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our recently acquired facilities, or the future growth in our business, without encountering difficulties or that any such difficulties will not have a material adverse effect on us. Our growth could also increase our capital requirements, which may require us to issue potentially dilutive equity securities and incur additional debt.  

Our assets, including our real estate and loans, are subject to impairment charges, and our valuation and reserve estimates are based on assumptions and may be subject to adjustment.

Our asset portfolio primarily consists of real estate and mortgage loans, which are subject to write-downs in value. From time to time, we close facilities and actively market such facilities for sale. To the extent we are unable to sell these properties for our book value, we may be required to take a non-cash impairment charge or loss on the sale, either of which would reduce our net income.  In addition, we periodically, but not less than annually, evaluate our real estate investments and other assets for impairment indicators, and we establish general and specific reserves for our issued loans at least quarterly. The quarterly evaluation of our investments for impairment may result in significant fluctuations in our provision for credit losses or real estate impairments from quarter to quarter, impacting our results of operations. Judgments regarding the existence of impairment indicators or loan reserves are based on a number of factors, including market conditions, operator performance and legal structure, and these factors may involve estimates. If we determine that a significant impairment has occurred, we are required to make an adjustment to the net carrying value of the asset, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Our estimates of loan reserves, and other accounting estimates, are inherently uncertain and may be subject to future adjustment, leading potentially to an increase in reserves.  

Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.

We have a material amount of indebtedness and we may increase our indebtedness in the future. Our level and type of indebtedness could have important consequences for our stockholders. For example, it could:

increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds, on satisfactory terms or at all, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business plan or other general corporate purposes;
increase our cost of borrowing;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes;
limit our ability to make material acquisitions or take advantage of business opportunities that may arise;
limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders, which may cause us to lose our qualification as a REIT under the Code or to become subject to federal corporate income tax on any REIT taxable income that we do not distribute;
expose us to fluctuations in interest rates, to the extent our borrowings bear variable rates of interest;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt.

Further, we have the ability to incur substantial additional debt, including secured debt, which could intensify the risks above. In addition, if we are unable to refinance any of our floating rate debt, we would continue to be subject to interest rate risk. The short-term nature of some of our debt also subjects us to the risk that market conditions may be unfavorable or may prevent us from refinancing our debt at or prior to their existing maturities. In addition, our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to repay all of our outstanding debt as it becomes due, and we may not be able to borrow money, sell assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms, if at all, to refinance our debt.

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Covenants in our debt documents limit our operational flexibility, and a covenant breach could materially adversely affect our operations.

The terms of our credit agreements and note indentures require us to comply with a number of customary financial and other covenants that may limit our management’s discretion by restricting our ability to, among other things, incur additional debt, redeem our capital stock, enter into certain transactions with affiliates, pay dividends and make other distributions, make investments and other restricted payments, engage in mergers and consolidations, create liens, sell assets or engage in new lines of business. In addition, our credit facilities require us to maintain compliance with specified financial covenants, including those relating to maximum total leverage, maximum secured leverage, maximum unsecured leverage, minimum fixed charge coverage, minimum consolidated tangible net worth and minimum unsecured interest coverage. Any additional financing we may obtain could contain similar or more restrictive covenants. Our continued ability to incur indebtedness, conduct our operations, and take advantage of business opportunities as they arise is subject to compliance with these financial and other covenants. Breaches of these covenants could result in defaults under the instruments governing the applicable indebtedness, in addition to any other indebtedness cross-defaulted against such instruments. Any such breach could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to particular risks associated with real estate ownership, which could result in unanticipated losses or expenses.

Our business is subject to many risks that are associated with the ownership of real estate. For example, if our operators do not renew their leases, we may be unable to re-lease the facilities at favorable rental rates, if at all. Other risks that are associated with real estate acquisition and ownership include, without limitation, the following:

general liability, property and casualty losse